T-Th,  Spring 2005

Course Syllabus              Dr. Barbara Borg


My Office:  #88 Wentworth, Room 101 (cream-colored brick building on corner of Wentworth and St. Philip.  Office hours: 3:15-4:15 p.m. T-Th with many additional MWF hours available by individual appointment. 

Phone: 953-5408 (my office & answering machine) or 953-5738 (Sociology/Anthropology secretary).




What is the study of Archaeology?


                  Archaeology means the ‘study of’ the ‘old’ (from the Greek ‘arkhaios’ + ‘logos’).  It is part of the broader field of anthropology which is the study of human beings in all times and in all places.  Archaeologists interpret the material record of patterned human behavior in the past.  An archaeologist does not study “fossils” such as sharks’ teeth or dinosaur bones, although one special kind of archaeologist--the human paleontologist--excavates and studies the remains of our human “fossil” ancestors and their development over a 4-5 million year span.  Prehistoric archaeology deals with the material remains of ancient human cultures worldwide for which no historical (written) records are available.  This includes about 99% of human history.  While the popular view of archaeologists is that they “dig” to recover ancient artifacts, archaeologists are primarily interested in collecting information about past human behavior.  Portable artifacts such as pottery or projectile points.  non-movable features such as burials, walls, and ancient agricultural fields, and environmental ecofacts (ecological clues that are not man-made or man-modified) such as plant parts, snail shells, or ancient pollen are just several of many different kinds of data collected.  It is the vertical and horizontal relationships among all material remains found in an archaeological site that yield the vital information which takes us beyond the artifacts themselves.  Archaeologists systematically measure, record, and photograph all of this information which together forms the archaeological context.  It is this “context” (ultimately, interpretation) which is lost when looters focus only upon the objects and not on the relationships among them.  In addition to excavation, archaeologists today utilize many sophisticated scientific methods to learn about archaeological sites.  The popular view of archaeology presented in films like the Indiana Jones series, while entertaining, is very misleading.   Archaeology is a fascinating scientific pursuit, but it virtually never resembles such thrilling and dangerous treasure hunts.  Few archaeologists look for or find gold, jewels, tombs, or mummies.   Many do discover a wealth of fascinating information about the cultures they study. Only 25% of archaeology is fieldwork (site location and excavation): 75% is laboratory research and writing.

                  Historical archaeology is the other branch of archaeology which deals with more recent sites for which some kind of written record exists to aid in the interpretation of past human activities. These written records include such documents as early travelers’ accounts, maps, letters, trading records, tax, census, and other administrative documents, missionary accounts, and written histories.  Historical archaeologists must often master some of the skills of the historian (documents, often in foreign languages), the architectural historian (early building techniques and structure styles), and the ceramic specialist (site dating using historically documented ceramics), and they must also know how to combine these with appropriate techniques from prehistoric archaeology.  Much of the archaeology done here in Charleston is colonial period historical archaeology, which provides data for the reconstruction and public interpretation of historic houses, structures like the Old Powder Magazine, the Old Courthouse reconstruction, the Civil War submarine Hunley, the historic plantations, and the history of African Americans and other ethnic groups.  The Charleston Museum employs two full-time historical archaeologists.  In addition, preservation organizations, private consulting companies, and government agencies also employ archaeologists in our region.  The Charleston area is just one focus of historical archaeology across our nation and, of course, throughout the world.  When you think of archaeology you may be most familiar with the ancient Egyptians or the Maya of Central America who built pyramids and developed high civilizations.  Both of these cultures had forms of writing, however, which assists archaeologists in their study.  Because such early writing provides only a partial record of elite behavior, prehistoric archaeological techniques are also employed to reconstruct the nature of the entire society--part of the holistic approach of the broader field of anthropology.

                  Underlying the historical past of the “non-natives”of Charleston and the rest of the Western Hemisphere is the Native American past.  Most Native Americans (except the Mayas of Central America) had no written language, and there were no historical accounts written about them until the arrival of Europeans.  In this respect Native Americans are like many other peoples worldwide whose past sites, behaviors, and cultures must be studied largely in the absence of written records.  While this course will include some comparative examples of Old World archaeology, emphasis is placed upon New World archaeology, and upon the methods archaeologists use to locate, examine, and excavate archaeological sites, and to analyze and interpret the material remains of past cultures.  Integral to this course are eight videos produced by the authors of your textbook which illustrate the scientific methods discussed in your text as they are applied to answer specific questions in important archaeological sites.


Borg, Archaeology, Sp05, T-Th Syllabus,  p.2



Reading Assignments (Please read by the class time listed.)                               General Topic from your readings**



**Lecture topics may differ and may include new material not in your texts.





TH             1/13         No Assignment                                                                               CLASS ORIENTATION


T                1/18         READ TEXT Ch. 1: Intro to Anthro.& Arch., pp.1-23          How do we know about the past?  Goals                                           DO STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 1                                                             of Archaeology; Culture & Environment.


TH             1/20         READ TEXT Ch. 2: Development of Anthropology             History of Archaeology                          

                                    and Archaeology, pp. 24-66.

                                    DO STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 2




T                1/25         READ TEXT Ch. 3: The Case of the Copán Maya,                 Copán Maya project; Environmental studies;

                                    pp. 67-109.                                                                                      Excavations; Experimental archaeology;

                                    DO STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 3                                                             Culture History: dating, writing, symbols.


TH             1/27         READ TEXT Ch. 4:  Archaeological Methods,                       Phase 1: research design;  Phase 2: fieldwork;

                                    pp. 110 -145.                                                                                   Phase 3: materials analysis; Phase 4: data                                              DO STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 4                                                             analysis;  and Phase 5: Interpretation                           


T                2/1            READ TEXT Ch. 5: Conceptual Framework,                           Concept of Culture; Biological and Cultural                                      pp. 146-186.                                                                                    Evolution; Political Integration; Cultural                                                  DO STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 5                                                             Ecology; Cultures as Systems.

                                    IN CLASS: INTEGRATED VIDEO #1--CULTURAL EVOLUTION

                                    IN CLASS: HAND OUT CRITICAL QUESTION # 1


TH             2/3            READ TEXT Ch. 6: Human Habitats,                                        Ecology and energy; Food procurement and                                        pp.187-216.                                                                                     technology; Cultural evolution settings;

                                    DO STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 6                                                             Technology and resource procurement           

                                    DUE TODAY: CRITICAL QUESTION #1



T                2/8            EXAM #1 over TEXT chapters 1-6,  all lectures, integrated video #1, and Critical Questions #1.

                                    Bring your Study Guide to the exam for your first of three grades.





TH             2/10         BEGIN TEXT Ch. 7: Family and Household,                          Family and household; Dwelling functions;

                                    Community, and Society,  pp. 218-234.                                                   House excavation and reconstruction;                                                             BEGIN STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 7                                                      Community characterization

                                    IN CLASS: STONE TOOL LAB


T                2/15         FINISH TEXT Ch. 7: Family and Household,                         Settlement hierarchy and Political Integration;                                                 Community, and Society, pp. 235-251.                                  House and household (egalitarian and                                                         FINISH STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 7                                                     non-egalitarian); Cultural organization.

                                    DUE TODAY: STONE TOOL LAB WRITE-UP                                          

                                    IN CLASS: INTEGRATED VIDEO #2--HEARTH AND FAMILY

                                    IN CLASS: HAND OUT CRITICAL QUESTION # 2


TH             2/17         BEGIN TEXT Ch. 8: Artisans and Traders,                              Archaeological approaches to specialization                                             pp. 252-270.                                                                                    and distribution; Economic specialization and                                                     BEGIN STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 8                                                      distribution; Non-industrial complex societies.                

                                    DUE TODAY: CRITICAL QUESTION #2

                                    IN CLASS: CERAMICS LAB





Borg, Archaeology, Sp05, T-Th Syllabus,  p.3



Reading Assignments (Please read by class time listed.)                                      General Topic from your readings**



**Lecture topics may differ and may include new material not in your texts.



T                2/22         FINISH TEXT Ch. 8: Artisans and Traders,                             Investigating specialization, exchange, and                                             pp. 270-288.                                                                                    trade: the archaeological record; Teotihuacán

                                    FINISH STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 8                                                     and Copán.                                                  

                                    DUE TODAY: CERAMICS LAB WRITE-UP                           


                                    IN CLASS: HAND OUT CRITICAL QUESTION #3


TH             2/24         BEGIN TEXT Ch. 9: Signs and Symbols,                                Signs or symbols? Symbol functions;

                                    pp. 289-311.                                                                                    Types of symbolic systems

                                    BEGIN STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 9

                                    DUE TODAY: CRITICAL QUESTION #3


T                3/1            FINISH TEXT Ch. 9: Signs and Symbols,                               Classic Maya symbolic systems;

                                    pp. 311-323.                                                                                    The significance of Copán symbols.

                                    FINISH STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 9                                                                                                                                                                                   IN CLASS: INTEGRATED VIDEO #4--SYMBOLIC COMMUNICATION

                                    IN CLASS: HAND OUT CRITICAL QUESTION #4


TH             3/3            BEGIN TEXT Ch. 10: Power, Prestige,                    Politics, government., and political systems;

                                    and Wealth, pp. 324-340.                                                            Ranked societies; Stratification andthe State;                                               BEGIN STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 10                                                    Processes of political evolution.

                                    DUE TODAY: CRITICAL QUESTION #4                                                   

                                    IN CLASS: HAND OUT INTERPRETIVE EXERCISE (due  3/22)



T  3/8 AND TH 3/10        SPRING BREAK       NO CLASS ! ! !       ENJOY (But work on your interpretive exercise!) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________



T                3/15         FINISIH TEXT Ch. 10: Power, Prestige,                                   Ethnohistory and archaeology of political

                                    and Wealth, pp.340-355.                                                             evolution;  Archaeological reconstruction:

                                    FINISH STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 10                                                   Classic Copán Maya politics.

                                    IN CLASS: INTEGRATED VIDEO #5--POLITICAL SYSTEMS                                                                                                                         IN CLASS: HAND OUT CRITICAL QUESTION #5


TH             3/17         BEGIN TEXT Ch. 11: Realms,                                                     Recon. political systems; Political interaction              

                                    pp. 356-372.

                                    BEGIN STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 11                                                   

                                    DUE TODAY: CRITICAL QUESTION #5


T                3/22         FINISH TEXT Ch. 11: Realms,                                                    Classic Maya sites and politics; The Inca empire.

                                    pp. 372-386.           

                                    FINISH STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 11                                

                                    DUE TODAY: INTERPRETIVE EXERCISE (due at beginning of class)

                                    IN CLASS: INTEGRATED VIDEO #6--ANCIENT KINGDOMS

                                    IN CLASS: HAND OUT CRITICAL QUESTION #6


TH             3/24         BEGIN TEXT Ch. 12: Spirit World: Religion      Cultural evolution and belief systems; Religion and                                               and Ideology, pp. 387-395.                    ideology: Traditional and industrial societies;

                                    BEGIN STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 12                Adaptive dimensions; Reconstructing religion.

                                    DUE TODAY: CRITICAL QUESTION #6



T                3/29         EXAM #2    over TEXT chapters 7-11 (Note that ch. 12 will be on Exam #3), lectures, videotapes #s 2-6, and                             Critical Questions #s2-6.  Hand in Study Guide at beginning of exam for your second of three grades.





                                                                                          Borg, Archaeology, Sp05, T-Th Syllabus,  p.4



Reading Assignments (Please read by class time listed.)                                      General Topic from your readings**



**Lecture topics may differ and may include new material not in your texts.



TH             3/31         FINISH TEXT Ch. 12: Spirit World: Religion                       Ethnographic analogs; Religion in egalitarian                                                    and Ideology, pp. 395-412.                                                        farming societies;  Mesoamerican cultural

                                    FINISH STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 12                                                   evolution; Limits.                                                                                           IN CLASS: INTEGRATED VIDEO #7--THE SPIRITUAL WORLD

                                    IN CLASS: HAND OUT CRITICAL QUESTION #7






[NOTE: CHAPTER 13 WILL NOT BE COVERED IN CLASS OR ON EXAM #3;  YOU MAY CHOOSE TO PREPARE A TAKE-HOME ASSIGNMENT OVER THIS CHAPTER  FOR EXTRA CREDIT.]  TEXT Ch. 13: Rise of Civilization in the Primary and secondary civilizations; Old World, pp. 413-462. Mesopotamia; Egypt; Harappan civilization in the Indus Valley; China; O.W. early civilization.



T                4/5            TEXT Ch. 14: Rise of Civilization in the                                New World civilization: general evolution;                                                    New World, pp. 463-511.                                                             Archaeological approaches; Mesoamerica;

                                    DO STUDY GUIDE,  Ch. 14                                                          Olmecs thru Teotihuacán and the Classic                                        DUE TODAY: CRITICAL QUESTION #7                                  Maya and Central Andean civilizations.





TH             4/7            TEXT Ch. 15: Fall of Civs; Maya Collapse                            Collapsing civs.; Classic Maya collapse;

                                    (Copán), pp. 513-537.                                                                  Explanations of Maya collapse; New views

                                    DO STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 15                                                           on the collapse from Copán; Scientific arch.


                                    TEXT Ch. 16: Explanation and Archaeology,                        Explanatory models: population through

                                    pp. 539-63.                                                                                      technological;  information systems through

                                    DO STUDY GUIDE, Ch. 16                                                           system-ecological; Past Lessons; Future                                          IN CLASS: INTEGRATED VIDEO #8--THE COLLAPSE       Prospects.

                                    IN CLASS: HAND OUT CRITICAL QUESTION #8




T                4/12         EXAM #3 over TEXT chapters 12, 14, 15, & 16 (not Ch. 13), lectures, videotapes #s 7& 8, and Critical                                        Questions #s 7 & 8.  Bring your Study Guide to the exam for your third of three grades.                      

                                    DUE TODAY: CRITICAL QUESTION #8

                                    IN CLASS: HAND OUT KOSTER BOOK STUDY GUIDE



Borg, Archaeology, Sp05, T-Th Syllabus,  p.5



Reading Assignments (Must be read by class time listed.)                                                     General Topic from your readings**



**Lecture topics may differ and may include new material not in your texts.


TH             4/14         READ KOSTER CASE STUDY, pp. 3-10                                  Secret in the Cornfield,  “Some Day You Ought                                                   BEGIN KOSTER STUDY GUIDE                                                 to Dig There”, The “Arkies”, We Encounter an                                        IN CLASS: KOSTER SITE SLIDES                                             Early Human and His Best Friend.  The Kingdom                                             IN CLASS: BEGIN KOSTER DISCUSSION                              of Lowilva, “The Big Hole”, Mary and Teed. The                                                                                                                                                                  New Archaeology,What Was Climate Like in

                                                                                                                                                7500 B.C.?


T                4/19         READ KOSTER CASE STUDY, pp. 105-183                           Reading the Past Environment From Mussel                                        DO KOSTER STUDY GUIDE for pp. 105-183                         Shells, Early Organization Man, N.Am.’s Earliest                               IN CLASS: KOSTER SITE SLIDES                                             Permanent Houses.  The“Kromebar People”,                                              IN CLASS: CONTINUE KOSTER DISCUSSION   Keeping Track of Trash, Burial of the Dead.


TH             4/21         READ KOSTER CASE STUDY,  pp.184-249                           There Were No Invaders, A 1,400-Year-Old Skirt

                                    DO KOSTER STUDY GUIDE, pp. 184-249                              Koster Rewrites History, A Day at Koster in

IN CLASS: END KOSTER DISCUSSION                                  3500 B.C., Appendix: Changes Needed in

IN CLASS: ARCH. FIELD SCHOOL SLIDES                           Archaeology.


Th             12/2         QUIZ OVER KOSTER CASE STUDY

                                    DUE TODAY:  KOSTER STUDY GUIDE (to be graded)








REQUIRED TEXTS (available at the College Bookstore and University Books on King Street):


Webster, David L., Evans, Susan T., and Sanders, William T.

1993        Out of the Past: An Introduction to Archaeology.  Mountain View, California: Mayfield                                                                                      Publishing Company (hardcover).


Gonlin, Nancy, Evans, Susan T., and Webster, David L.

1993        Study Guide to accompany Out of the Past: An Introduction to Archaeology.  Mountain View,California: Mayfield    Publishing Company (paperback). 


Struever, Stuart and Felicia Antonelli Holton.

                  1979        Koster: Americans in Search of Their Prehistoric Past.  Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press

                                    (a 2000 reissue).



VIDEOTAPES/SLIDES:  These are considered very important, and are designed to broaden your  knowledge of anthropological archaeology.  The videotapes have been designed by your textbook authors to accompany your text and to illustrate the topics in that chapter.  There will be critical study questions due over them as well as questions on the major exams which refer to the content of the videotapes. A videotape day is NOT a day to miss.  Rather, you should be sure you have read the chapter covered so that you will better understand the material presented in the video.


MAJOR EXAMS:  There are 3 major exams over the primary text.  Each major exam is worth 100 points for a total of 300 points.  Your 300 point unit exam total will comprise 60% of your final grade.   The 4th exam in the course is a quiz over the Koster Case Study, worth 5 % of your final grade.  Exams may be a combination of matching, multiple choice, and essay, at the discretion of the professor. The College of Charleston's Honor Code will be observed. There will be no make-up exams given except under extraordinary and well documented circumstances.  Students who must miss an exam need to notify the professor BEFORE the exam is given.  Call 953-5408 (my answering machine), or 953-5738 to leave a message with the department secretary.  If you miss an exam, you will be asked to go to the Office of the Associate Dean of Undergraduate Studies in Randolph Hall with appropriate documentation (letter from your doctor, obituary of a close family member or friend, etc.).  [ADVICE: My experience has shown that students who keep current and take their exams on time usually do much better than those who take make-up exams.] The form of a make-up exam is at the discretion of your professor, and it may be all essay.  In certain cases you may arrange to take an exam or quiz early.



Borg, Archaeology, Sp05, T-Th Syllabus,  p.6


REQUIRED STUDY GUIDE:  For each segment of the course you will hand in the required completed study guide segment for a grade at the beginning of each exam (2/8, 3/29, 4/12, and Koster Quiz on 4/26).


CONSTRUCTION OF STUDY GUIDE:  Because the published study guide for your major text does not leave you sufficient room to write, please construct a loose leaf version with your answers and simply add to it as you progress through the course. You are responsible for all terms and questions up to and including the essays in the published Study Guide. The essays may usually be answered in a few sentences or partial sentences. Hand in ONLY THE ANSWERS for the segment covered by each exam, in your own handwriting, and stapled together, and make sure your name is on your work. Clearly label the chapters and the question sections.


CALCULATION OF STUDY GUIDE GRADE:  Study Guide grades will comprise up to 15% of your final grade.  Failure to turn in a Study Guide will result in a zero for that segment (15% of the final grade). Because I will assume that a thorough job done on the study guide should be reflected in better exam grades the amount of Study Guide credit you receive will be tied to your exam grades.  I will take the average of your three major exams, multiply this average by the percent awarded for your study guide, and add this figure to your exam total.   [For example, if the average of your three major exams is 80%, and you did a great job on your study guide and got the maximum credit of 15%, I will  multiply 80 by .15 for a total of 12% added to your exam average, which in this case would then be 92.  (This 92 then still represents 70% of your final grade.)].   The Koster book’s Study Guide will be treated similarly when we get to it at the end of the semester.


OTHER GRADED/RECORDED WRITTEN EXERCISES:  The remaining 15% of your final grade will consist of a Koster case study quiz (5%), the Koster Study Guide (up to 5%, tied to your quiz score), and the remaining written work (15%) which includes 1 interpretive exercise, 2 labs, and possible additional announced or unannounced quizzes to be given at the discretion of your professor.  Eight critical questions will be handed out during the course of the semester.  These will form the basis for any essay questions asked on exams.  You must complete these questions, but they will not be indivudually graded.  Instead I will log them in as completed and received, and hand them back to you for study. Quizzes given at the beginning of class, if missed, cannot be made up.  If you have an excused absence you may request to take a quiz early.  If you arrive in class too late to complete a graded activity with the rest of the class you may not be allowed to begin the activity and will have to take a zero for that assignment.


EXTRA CREDIT:  There are two opportunities to earn extra credit in this course: (1) completion of a take-home question over textbook chapter 13 on Old World Archaeological Civilizations (a maximum of 2% will be added to your major exam average), and (2) attendance at two archaeological lectures during the semester (Charleston Chapter of the Archaeolocial Society of SC, and the Archaeological Institute of America).  Each lecture is worth 1 % (up to a maximum of 2%) added to your major exam average). Awarding of all extra credit points shall be totally at the discretion of your professor.


ATTENDANCE:  Attendance will be taken regularly.  If you arrive after roll has been taken it is your responsibility to see that I record your attendance at the end of class.  Students are expected to attend class regularly, and much required work will be done in class.  Four unexcused absences may result in withdrawal from this course without further notice with a grade of 'WA", which is a failing grade.  I must have written communication from your doctor or the Undergraduate Dean (in Randolph Hall) to consider excusing an absence.  (Please note that going to see the dean does not automatically excuse you).  Missing class due to a work schedule or personal  travel is counted as an unexcused absence.



                  60%: average of your three major exams

15%  (up to 15 % for completion of published Study Guide--see above;  failure to complete it is a zero worth 15%.)

                  10%: Koster case study quiz (5%), and study guide (up to 5%; failure to complete it results in a zero worth 5%).

                  15%: Other Written Work: 2 labs, 1 short interpretive exercise, the logged-in Critical Questions, other quizzes.

                  Any extra credit will be calculated in at the end of the semester (see above).



                  100 - 90  =  A    (Superior)                       76 - 70  = C   (Acceptable)

                    89 - 87  =  B+  (Very good)                    69 - 60  = D   (Barely acceptable, but passing)

                    86 - 80  =  B    (Good)                              59 - 0    = F    (Failing)

                    79 - 77  =  C+  (Fair)





SUMMER ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELD SCHOOL:  Every other summer the College of Charleston offers an extensive 7-week archaeological field school for interested students (all day, M-F, mid-May through about July 4) in conjunction with The Charleston Museum and its professional archaeology staff. The next CofC archaeological field school will be offered during Summer 2005 for 8 semester hours of credit.  ANTH 202 is the prerequisite for this advanced course.  A special application procedure (a short form and a personal interview) occurs at the end of the Spring semester, and is required before students will be allowed to register for the course (which thus appears as “closed” in the computer system).   Once accepted, our department will register participating students.  If you begin to be seriously interested in archaeology as the result of this introductory course, and are interested in learning more about this (or other) field school(s), contact Dr. Borg for more information.




Borg, Archaeology, Sp05, T-Th Syllabus,  p.7


CLASSROOM COMPORTMENT:   You may be unaware that many ”relaxed” habits into which you are tempted to slip as a student are simply not acceptable adult behavior in a university level classroom.  A university education is a privilege, not a right. In some universities students are not admitted to classes if they are not wearing an academic robe!  While this may seem excessive, it does underscore that the academic enterprise is a challenging and interesting one, and worthy of your respect while you are attending classes.  Take pride in your opportunities and accomplishments, and please be aware of the following:


***           Arriving late and walking between the professor and a group of students who are already at work is rude and                                               inconsiderate.  The classroom is neither your living room nor a movie theater!  It is a place to work.


***           Bringing food and drink into class is unnecessary, creates a disturbance (and often a mess that others have to                      clean up), and  keeps you from concentrating on the job at hand (listening, note taking, participating in class                                                  discussion, taking quizzes and exams).   I do not wish to see food and drink brought into class.


***           Leaving class early is also clearly disruptive, as is fidgeting in your seat  because your watch is set 5 minutes faster                           than that of your professor.  Be assured that I will do everything in my power to end class on time.  Your                                                     cooperation will help assure that I am able do so.


***           Visiting and whispering in private conversation while class is in session is not behavior respectful of the                                                educational process or others who are  in the classroom to learn.  It also reveals that you are not paying attention.


***           Wearing caps and hats in class which hide your eyes and face is also not acceptable.  Hats are a wonderful means                      of self expression!  However, an old fashioned piece of etiquette (and certainly part of Southern tradition)                                                requires that gentlemen remove their hats upon entering a building!  Although unfair, women’s hats are generally                     excluded from this rule.   However, students  (men and women alike) will be asked to remove such impediments                                    to eye contact during exams and quizzes.


***           Leaving class in the middle of an exam  or quiz is not permitted unless you are prepared to turn in your completed                                  exam before you depart.  You will not be allowed to return to the classroom and continue writing.  Plan ahead!






That being said . . .